peripheral neural system

SNS(somatic Nervous System)
connect to sensory receptors and skeletal muscles

ANS(Autonomic Nervous System)
Regulates internal organs

  • somatic
  • autonomic(subconscious, control system)

Nervous system

Central nervous system

Peripheral nervous system

Brain

Spinal cord

Autonomic nervous system

Somatic nervous system

Parasympathetic division

Sympathetic division

Sensory system ,afferent

Motor system,efferent

The Endocrine System

  • definition
    Glands that secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream

Pineal gland松果-> biological rhythm
Hypothalamus下丘脑
Pituitary gland脑垂体->growth
Tinyroid gland 甲状腺->energy regulation
Thymus 胸腺-> immune system, T-cells maturation
Pancreas 胰腺-> blood sugar
adrenal glands 肾上腺->fight and flight
Testes (male) Ovaries (female)

a tour to the brain

cerebellum
controls and coordinated involuntary, rapid,fine motor movement

pons
larger swelling above the medulla that connects the top of the brain to the bottom: plays a part in sleep,dreaming, left-right body coordination, and arousal

medulla
first large swelling at the top of the spinal cord forming the lowest part of the brain; responsible for life-sustaining functions such as reathing,swallowing, and heart rate

Reticular Formation(RF)
area of neurons running through the middle of the medulla and the pons and slightly beyond; responsible for selective attention

limbic system
The limbic system comprises various structures inside the brain: thalamus, hypothalamus,amygdala,hippocampus
gateways for emotional responses

Thalamus(丘脑) relays sensory information from the lower part of the brain to the proper areas of the cortex
processes some sensory information before sending it to it proper area

occipital lobe The Occipital LolJe is tl1e visual

parietal lobe
integrating information from several senses Also processes spatial orientantionm some parts of speech, visual perceptionm and pain and touch sensations

Temporal lobe
chief auditory receptive area and contains the hippocampus

frontal lobe
cognition and memory
ability to concentrate

wernicke’s area: association cortex-speech comprehension
condition resulting from damage to wernicke’s area
symptoms: inability to understand or produce meaningful language

hemispheric specialization – left and right

left

controls muscles on right side of body
controls language
math
logic
speech
analytical
intellectual

right

controls muscles on left side of body
spatial abilities
facial recognition
visual imagery
art and music
emotion
creativity

mapping the brain

EEG

Records electric activity of the brain below specific areas of the skull
generates low to high resolution activity maps with increasing number of sensors from as few as 2 to 128 or more

MRI

using radio waves and magnetic fields of the body to produce detailed images of the brain

FMRI

generates static images of the brain as well as dynamic image with functional MRO

Definition:

A brain-imaging method using radio waves and magnetic fields of the body to produce detailed images of the brain is called __ magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) __.

synaptic vesicles 突触泡

The part of the autonomic nervous system that is responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arousal is called the ___ sympathetic nervous system.

central

somatic

sympathetic

parasympathetic

The two main divisions of the nervous system are the peripheral nervous system; _ and central nervous system.

What part of the brain acts as a relay station for incoming sensory information?

hypothalamus

thalamus (correct)

cerebellum

pituitary gland

right/left hemisphere

Left-> logic and mathmetic

Right -> perception recognition

Which of the following neurotransmitters functions as a common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain?

serotonin

norepinephrine

acetylcholine

GABA

Which of the following regions contains the primary visual cortex?

frontal lobe

parietal lobe

temporal lobe

occipital lobe

Which part of the nervous system takes the information received from the senses, makes sense out of it, makes decisions, and sends commands out to the muscles and the rest of the body?

spinal cord

brain

reflexes

interneurons

Which part of the neuron is responsible for maintaining the life of the cell?

axon

soma

dendrite

cell membrane

A single long fiber extending from the cell body that carries outgoing messages is called a(n) axon.

The time period after a neural impulse when the neuron cannot fire again is called the

absolute refractory period.

When the electrical charge inside a neuron is negative in relation to the outside, the neuron is said to be in a state of polarization.

Breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure are controlled by the medulla.

The hypothalamus controls feeding, fleeing, fighting, and sex.

Which nervous system is activated in an emergency? sympathetic

The somatic nerve system is the body system.

The synapse is composed of the axon terminal, the synaptic space, and the dendrite of the next neuron.

An injury to the cerebellum results in difficulty maintaining balance and coordinating movements.

The hypothalamus regulates motivational responses and is involved with emotional behavior.

What structure connects the two hemispheres of the brain and coordinates their activities?

corpus callosum

All of the following show structure EXCEPT: PET-scans.

Which nervous system regulates the functions of glands, blood vessels, and the internal organs? Autonomic nervous system

What brain stem structure controls sleeping, waking, and dreaming? Pons

What is the only sense that completely bypasses the thalamus? Smell

What limbic structure is also known as the “gateway to memory?” hippocampus

What area of the cortex receives information about pressure, pain, touch, and temperature from all over the body? Somatosensory cortex

Which of the following functions affects Broca’s area? speech production

Endorphins reduce pain and produce pleasure. True

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