peripheral neural system
SNS(somatic Nervous System)
connect to sensory receptors and skeletal muscles
ANS(Autonomic Nervous System)
Regulates internal organs
- autonomic(subconscious, control system)
Central nervous system
Peripheral nervous system
Autonomic nervous system
Somatic nervous system
Sensory system ,afferent
The Endocrine System
Glands that secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream
Pineal gland松果-> biological rhythm
Tinyroid gland 甲状腺->energy regulation
Thymus 胸腺-> immune system, T-cells maturation
Pancreas 胰腺-> blood sugar
adrenal glands 肾上腺->fight and flight
Testes (male) Ovaries (female)
a tour to the brain
controls and coordinated involuntary, rapid,fine motor movement
larger swelling above the medulla that connects the top of the brain to the bottom: plays a part in sleep,dreaming, left-right body coordination, and arousal
first large swelling at the top of the spinal cord forming the lowest part of the brain; responsible for life-sustaining functions such as reathing,swallowing, and heart rate
area of neurons running through the middle of the medulla and the pons and slightly beyond; responsible for selective attention
The limbic system comprises various structures inside the brain: thalamus, hypothalamus,amygdala,hippocampus
gateways for emotional responses
Thalamus(丘脑) relays sensory
information from the lower part of the brain to the proper areas of the cortex
processes some sensory information before sending it to it proper area
occipital lobe The Occipital LolJe is tl1e visual
integrating information from several senses Also processes spatial orientantionm some parts of speech, visual perceptionm and pain and touch sensations
chief auditory receptive area and contains the hippocampus
cognition and memory
ability to concentrate
wernicke’s area: association cortex-speech
condition resulting from damage to wernicke’s area
symptoms: inability to understand or produce meaningful language
hemispheric specialization – left and right
controls muscles on right side of body
controls muscles on left side of body
art and music
mapping the brain
Records electric activity of the brain
below specific areas of the skull
generates low to high resolution activity maps with increasing number of sensors from as few as 2 to 128 or more
using radio waves and magnetic fields of the body to produce detailed images of the brain
generates static images of the brain as well as dynamic image with functional MRO
A brain-imaging method using radio waves and magnetic fields of the body to produce detailed images of the brain is called __ magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) __.
synaptic vesicles 突触泡
The part of the autonomic nervous system that is responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arousal is called the ___ sympathetic nervous system.
The two main divisions of the nervous system are the peripheral nervous system; _ and central nervous system.
What part of the brain acts as a relay station for incoming sensory information?
Left-> logic and mathmetic
Right -> perception recognition
Which of the following neurotransmitters functions as a common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain?
Which of the following regions contains the primary visual cortex?
Which part of the nervous system takes the information received from the senses, makes sense out of it, makes decisions, and sends commands out to the muscles and the rest of the body?
Which part of the neuron is responsible for maintaining the life of the cell?
A single long fiber extending from the cell body that carries outgoing messages is called a(n) axon.
The time period after a neural impulse when the neuron cannot fire again is called the
absolute refractory period.
When the electrical charge inside a neuron is negative in relation to the outside, the neuron is said to be in a state of polarization.
Breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure are controlled by the medulla.
The hypothalamus controls feeding, fleeing, fighting, and sex.
Which nervous system is activated in an emergency? sympathetic
The somatic nerve system is the body system.
The synapse is composed of the axon terminal, the synaptic space, and the dendrite of the next neuron.
An injury to the cerebellum results in difficulty maintaining balance and coordinating movements.
The hypothalamus regulates motivational responses and is involved with emotional behavior.
What structure connects the two hemispheres of the brain and coordinates their activities?
All of the following show structure EXCEPT: PET-scans.
Which nervous system regulates the functions of glands, blood vessels, and the internal organs? Autonomic nervous system
What brain stem structure controls sleeping, waking, and dreaming? Pons
What is the only sense that completely bypasses the thalamus? Smell
What limbic structure is also known as the “gateway to memory?” hippocampus
What area of the cortex receives information about pressure, pain, touch, and temperature from all over the body? Somatosensory cortex
Which of the following functions affects Broca’s area? speech production
Endorphins reduce pain and produce pleasure. True